He hoped it would absorb other parties and become a unifying force for the country.[46]. [38] It was warmly received by most deputies and observers. Aside from student groups, Lumumbist ideals play only a minor role in current Congolese politics. Some of his political opponents recovered it and published documents it supposedly contained, including letters from Nkrumah, appeals for support addressed to the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China, a memorandum dated 16 September declaring the presence of Soviet troops within one week, and a letter dated 15 September from Lumumba to the provincial presidents (Tshombe excepted) entitled "Measures to be applied during the first stages of the dictatorship". He spent the night there but was attacked in the morning by Luba soldiers, who blamed him for the atrocities in South Kasaï. Lumumba denounced his dismissal over the radio as illegitimate, and in turn labeled Kasa-Vubu a traitor and declared him deposed. [149][150], In the late 20th and early 21st century, Lumumba's assassination was investigated. Those who are paid today by the enemies of freedom for the purpose of maintaining sedition movements across the country and thereby disturbing the social peace will be punished with the utmost energy...", "We must move forward, striking out tirelessly against imperialism. [15] As a result, he had more political autonomy than contemporaries who were more dependent on Belgian connections. The people and politicians of South Kasai held Lumumba personally responsible for the actions of the army. [35] Though many had questionable loyalty to Lumumba, most did not openly contradict him out of political considerations or fear of reprisal. Patrice Loko ancien joueur de France Avant-centre récemment à {nom complet du club} * 6 févr. [108] On 13 September, the Parliament held a joint session between the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. È disponibile un elenco completo. In a press conference, Lumumba reaffirmed his government's commitment to "positive neutralism". "[208], Lumumba is viewed as one of the "fathers of independence" of the Congo. He stated that "technicians" would run the administration while the politicians sorted out their differences. Première sélection vs Israël 17/02/1993. [82], Lumumba's statement to the press, 10 August 1960 (translated from French)[92], On 9 August Lumumba proclaimed an état d'exception (or state of emergency) throughout the Congo. These promotions were made in spite of Lundula's inexperience and rumours about Mobutu's ties to Belgian and US intelligence services. His name is also mentioned in rap music; Arrested Development, Nas, David Banner, Black Thought, Damso, Baloji, Médine, Sammus and many others have mentioned him in their work. Belgian Gerndarmerie officer Gerard Soete and his team dug up and dismembered the corpses, and dissolved them in sulfuric acid while the bones were ground and scattered. Kasa-Vubu publicly announced that only a federalist government could bring peace and stability to the Congo. [212] Among the most prominent works featuring him are Aimé Césaire's 1966 play, Une saison au Congo, and Raoul Peck's 1992 documentary and 2000 feature film, Lumumba, la mort d'un prophète and Lumbumba, respectively. He alerted the reserve garrison of Camp Hardy, 95 miles away in Thysville. A handful of other writers, such as Jean-Paul Sartre, shared the belief that Lumumba's goals were unattainable in 1960 but nevertheless viewed him as a martyr of Congolese independence at the hands of certain Western interests and the victim of events over which he had little control. Later that day Kasa-Vubu managed to secure the countersignatures to his order of Albert Delvaux, Minister Resident in Belgium, and Justin Marie Bomboko, Minister of Foreign Affairs. The speeches of the first and only fairly elected President of the Congo, Patrice Lumumba, articulate that vision clearly and powerfully. Patrice Loko prend plus de temps pour se soigner définitivement, revient sur les terrains à la fin de l'année 1997, mais Florian Maurice, pourtant peu performant avec l'équipe parisienne, lui est systématiquement préféré. [211] Numerous songs and plays have been dedicated to him, and many praised his character, contrasting it with the alleged irresponsible and undisciplined nature of the Congolese people. [192] Most of these parties have enjoyed little electoral support, though Gizenga's Parti Lumumbiste Unifié was represented in the Congolese coalition government formed under President Joseph Kabila in 2006. According to sociologist Ludo De Witte, both of these perspectives overstate the political weaknesses and isolation of Lumumba. Découvrez le profil de Richard MOUYABI-BIDILOU sur LinkedIn, la plus grande communauté professionnelle au monde. [28], Most party leaders refused to support a government that did not include Lumumba. / A free and gallant Congo will arise from black soil, / A free and gallant Congo--black blossom from black soil! [7] Raised in a Catholic family, he was educated at a Protestant primary school, a Catholic missionary school, and finally the government post office training school, where he passed the one-year course with distinction. Lumumba and some ministers were wary of the UN option, as it would supply them with functionaries who would not respond directly to their authority. Loko, localité du Cameroun située dans la commune de Guéré ; Loko, ville du Togo ; Loko, ville du Nigeria ; Loko, village d'Estonie ; Loko, rivière de République démocratique du Congo. [46] The Belgians were opposed to such an idea, as it would create inefficiency in the Congo's bureaucracy and lead to a mass exodus of unemployed civil servants to Belgium, whom they would be unable to absorb into the government there. Le roman de cent vingt-quatre pages, publié cette année aux éditions L'Harmattan-Congo, entremêle spiritualité, politique, religion et philosophie. The army became involved in massacres of Luba civilians. Overall, the vote was a disappointment for the MNC-L coalition. People like us tried to tell him not to sign. [90] In Ghana Lumumba signed a secret agreement with President Nkrumah providing for a "Union of African States". Nombre de sélections A 26. Détenteur d’un visa de touriste, Loko ne pouvait jamais poser les actes administratifs au pays de Patrice Emery Lumumba, mais aujourd’hui il est clair qu’il bénéficie, d’un soutien important d’un acteur politique influent dans les institutions de la RDcongolaises. When arguments concluded, a decisive vote of approval was taken on the government: 60 voted in favor, 12 against, while eight abstained. After Kasongo opened the session, Lumumba delivered his main speech,[37] promising to maintain national unity, abide by the will of the people, and pursue a neutralist foreign policy. [54], Prime Minister's Press Secretary Serge Michel[55], Independence Day and the three days that followed it were declared a national holiday. Consultez le profil complet sur LinkedIn et découvrez les relations de Patrice, ainsi que des emplois dans des entreprises similaires. The following day Lumumba delivered a similar speech before the Senate, which subsequently delivered the government a vote of confidence, 49 to zero with seven abstentions. "[178] The BBC reported that, subsequently, "Whitehall sources" described the claims of MI6 involvement as "speculative". Most Europeans went to Katanga Province, which possessed much of the Congo's natural resources. [192] Numerous American historians have cited his death as a major contributing factor to the radicalisation of the American civil rights movement in the 1960s,[193] and many African-American activist organisations and publications used public comment on his death to express their ideology. Patrice Émery Lumumba (/lʊˈmʊmbə/;[4] alternatively styled Patrice Hemery Lumumba;[5] 2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was a Congolese politician and independence leader who served as the first Prime Minister of the independent Democratic Republic of the Congo (then Republic of the Congo) from June until September 1960. L'actu de la Ligue 1 Conforama en vidéo. Challenge P. Morinère – FCN1995 vs FCN2001 – oct 2012. Kanza later said, "[Lumumba] didn't care...as long as an American presented this contract. [24] Once Ganshof had made contact with the cartel leadership, he was impressed by their obstinacy and assurances of a strong anti-Lumumba polity. He was well received in each country and issued joint communiques with their respective heads of state. [213] In popular painting he is often paired with notions of sacrifice and redemption,[214] even being portrayed as a messiah, with his downfall being his passion. Mobutu's men arrested him. Inscrivez-vous sur Facebook pour communiquer avec Patrice Loko et d’autres personnes que vous pouvez connaître. [203] The killing is viewed in the context of the memory as a symbolic moment in which the Congo lost its dignity in the international realm and the ability to determine its future, which has since been controlled by the West. In Lumumba's last documented letter, he wrote to Rajeshwar Dayal: "in a word, we are living amid absolutely impossible conditions; moreover, they are against the law". [44] He was worried that opposition to his government would appear rapidly and had to be managed quickly and decisively. [216] Congolese authors Sony Lab'ou Tansi's and Sylvain Bemba's fictional Parentheses of Blood and Léopolis, respectively, both feature characters with strong similarities to Lumumba. Lumumba followed his arguments with an analysis of the Loi Fondemental and finished by asking Parliament to assemble a "commission of sages" to examine the Congo's troubles. He was convicted and sentenced one year later to twelve months imprisonment and a fine. [204] Lumumba's determination to pursue his goals is extrapolated upon the Congolese people as their own; securing the Congo's dignity and self-determination would thus ensure their "redemption" from victimisation by Western powers. A new narrative subsequently emerged, holding Western espionage at fault for Lumumba's death, and emphasising the threat his charismatic appeal posed to Western interests. [101] In an attempt to keep him informed, Michel enlisted the assistance of three Belgian telex operators, who supplied him with copies of all outgoing journalistic dispatches. [168] Furthermore, declassified CIA cables quoted or mentioned in the Church report, and in Kalb (1982), mention two specific CIA plots to murder Lumumba: the poison plot and a shooting plot. [88], Frustrated with the UN's apparent inaction towards Katanga as he departed the US, Lumumba decided to delay his return to the Congo. [93] On 16 August Lumumba announced the installation of a régime militaire spécial for the duration of six months,[99] including the establishment of military tribunals. On 29 July he went to Ottawa, the capital of Canada. The pro-Lumumba resolution was defeated on 14 December 1960 by a vote of 8–2. Lumumba was killed three days before Kennedy's inauguration on 20 January, though Kennedy did not learn of the killing until 13 February.[167]. He wrote poetry, and many of his works had an anti-imperialist theme. Coronavirus - Cavani envoie un message, Silva et Paredes en famille : comment les joueurs du PSG vivent leur confinement Delvaux made an unexpected appearance and took to the dais to denounce his arrest and declare his resignation from the government. Shortly afterward, the government shut down the Belga and Agence France-Presse wire services. [20], Ganshof returned to the Congo on 12 June. At noon, he made a counter-offer to Kasa-Vubu, who instead responded with a letter demanding the creation of a seventh province for the Bakongo. Richard indique 1 poste sur son profil. [62] Many soldiers hoped that independence would result in immediate promotions and material gains, but were disappointed by Lumumba's slow pace of reform. [196] Mobutism built off of these principles. Patrice Loko (born 6 February 1970) is French former footballer who played as a striker. The King had limited political power in Belgium, but he was free to write his own speeches (after revision by the government). Soyez prévenu par email des prochaines mises à jour. [130] Lumumba and his advisers had made it to the far side, but his wife and child were left to be captured on the bank. Lumumba denied having authorised the arrests and issued an apology before the Chamber. Add your article. On 16 June Lumumba reported his difficulties to Ganshof, who extended the deadline and promised to act as an intermediary between the MNC leader and the opposition. By evening Lumumba's mission was showing even less chances of succeeding. Lumumba was focused on discussing the withdrawal of Belgian troops and various options for technical assistance with Dag Hammarskjöld. Lieu de naissance Sully-sur-Loire. [71] Mutineers in Leopoldville and Thysville surrendered only upon the personal intervention of Lumumba and President Kasa-Vubu. Centred in Léopoldville, it was to be a federation with a republican government. Buteur ... William Loko Frère. According to de Witte, the vote was tallied as 41 to two with six abstentions. [27] He assumed that he would secure the Presidency, so he began looking for someone to serve as his prime minister. Police Commissioner Frans Verscheure who had operational command, and led Lumumba and the other two to their place of execution. Ses transferts. en 2007 la société d’évènementiel sportif "Loko Sport Évènements". [218], "Lumumba" redirects here. [5], In the period following World War II, young leaders across Africa increasingly worked for national goals and independence from the colonial powers. In 1955, Lumumba became regional head of the Cercles of Stanleyville and joined the Liberal Party of Belgium. Joueurs du Paris Saint-Germain ayant fait au moins une apparition en match officiel avec l'équipe première depuis juillet 1970.. Pour les statistiques sur la saison en cours, voir la saison en cours.. Mis à jour : 24/12/2020. [58] Numerous Congolese citizens showed up at the office at whim for various reasons. [92][d] He subsequently issued several orders in an attempt to reassert his dominance on the political scene. Subsequently another Belgian, contract officer, Julien Gat ordered the firing. Désir Okogna | Congo | Chef magasinier dépôt MTN BZV | 3 connections | See Désir's complete profile on Linkedin and connect Despite his brief political career and tragic death—or perhaps because of them—Lumumba entered history through the front door: he became both a flag and a symbol. Ganshof feared that such an action would jeopardize law and order, and he evaded taking any action until it was too late to fulfill the request. A second asserted the government's right to ban publications that produced material likely to bring the administration into disrepute. [176], In April 2013, in a letter to the London Review of Books, British parliamentarian David Lea reported having discussed Lumumba's death with MI6 officer Daphne Park shortly before she died in March 2010. He began his career at Nantes and then moved on to Paris Saint-Germain, where he was part of the team that won the 1996 Cup Winners' Cup and lost to Barcelona in the 1997 Cup Winners' Cup final. [125], After consultation with Kasa-Vubu and Lumumba, Mobutu announced that he would summon a round table conference to discuss the political future of the Congo. As a result of strong pressure from delegates upset by Lumumba's trial, he was released and allowed to attend the Brussels conference. [73] All European officers were replaced, with a few retained as advisers. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that Lumumba was growing impatient with the Parliamentary system and was seeking alternatives to achieve his agenda. In a 1999 interview on Belgian television, in a program about his assassination, Soete displayed a bullet and two teeth that he claimed he had saved from Lumumba's body. [40], When a vote was finally taken, only 80 of the 137 members of the Chamber were present. Si la cérémonie d’installation de José-Dominique Loko comme nouveau grand [...] BENIN Politique 16/11/2016. Lumumba saw Hammarskjöld and other staff of the UN Secretariat on 24, 25, and 26 July. Nationalité France. This greatly inflamed tensions, leading to renewed Congolese attacks on Europeans. [61] The following morning he convened the Council of Ministers to discuss the unrest among the troops of the Force Publique. On 10 February, the radio announced that Lumumba and two other prisoners had escaped. Devlin was involved in arranging Lumumba's transfer to Katanga,[163] and the CIA base chief in Elizabethville was in direct touch with the killers the night Lumumba was killed. [156] He published a book in 2003 about the assassination of Lumumba. Il se consacre aussi beaucoup aux siens, après toutes ses années d’itinérance aux six coins du pays. Kasa-Vubu eventually agreed to Lumumba's earlier offer, though Lumumba informed him that he could not give him a guarantee of support in his presidential candidacy. [...][52], Most European journalists were shocked by the stridency of Lumumba's speech. They thought he was gravitating toward the Soviet Union, although, according to Sean Kelly, who covered the events as a correspondent for the Voice of America, that was not because Lumumba was a communist, but because he felt that USSR was the only power which would support his country's effort to rid itself of colonial rule. The threat to the UN cause was intensified by the announcement of the withdrawal of their contingents by Yugoslavia, the United Arab Republic, Ceylon, Indonesia, Morocco, and Guinea. Various sources state Mobutu's action was encouraged and supported by Belgium and the United States. At 14:45 he presented his proposed government before the press. Ulyss est un cabinet d'étude, conseil, de formation et recrutement pour le developpement des entreprises ainsi que des administrations de la République démocratique du congo et de l'international. [41] The session was adjourned at 02:05 on 24 June. [147] Lumumba, for his part, denied being a communist, and said that he found colonialism and communism to be equally deplorable. [172], In 2013, the U.S. State Department admitted that President Eisenhower authorized the murder of Lumumba. William et Patrice Loko au Nou Camp. [216] His surname is often used to identify a long drink of hot or cold chocolate and rum. For other people and topics using the name Lumumba, see, 20th-century Congolese Prime Minister and leader, "Every morning at seven o'clock he sat at the huge desk, embellished with the forgotten coat of arms of colonial Belgium; a golden lion in a blue shield. Independence Day was celebrated on 30 June in a ceremony attended by many dignitaries, including King Baudouin of Belgium and the foreign press. created. He demanded that the army maintain its discipline and wrote "before independence = after independence" on a black board for emphasis. In 1975, the Church Committee went on record with the finding that CIA chief Allen Dulles had ordered Lumumba's assassination as "an urgent and prime objective". Soldiers refused to work unless they were paid; they received a total of 400,000 francs ($8,000) from the Katanga Cabinet. [48] Baudouin's speech praised developments under colonialism, his reference to the "genius" of his great-granduncle Leopold II of Belgium, glossing over atrocities committed during his reign over the Congo Free State. Voir le profil de Patrice LOKO sur LinkedIn, le plus grand réseau professionnel mondial. Don't be afraid to come to us. This led to growing differences with President Joseph Kasa-Vubu and chief-of-staff Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, as well as with the United States and Belgium, who opposed the Soviet Union in the Cold War. beaucoup aux siens, après toutes ses années d’itinérance aux six coins du pays. Article 22 of the Loi Fondamentale read, "The President names and revokes the Prime Minister." [205] Historian David Van Reybrouck wrote, "In no time Lumumba became a martyr of decolonisation...He owed this status more to the horrible end of his life than to his political successes. [50] The King continued, "Don't compromise the future with hasty reforms, and don't replace the structures that Belgium hands over to you until you are sure you can do better. Time magazine characterized his speech as a 'venomous attack'. 1970 à Sully-sur-Loire, France [134] Harold Charles d'Aspremont Lynden, the last Belgian Minister of the Colonies, ordered that Lumumba, Mpolo, and Okito be taken to the State of Katanga. Ses transferts. Compétitions Nord-Américaines et Caribéenes, Internationaux Serbes/Yougoslaves de Monténégro. [42] With the institution of a broad coalition, the parliamentary opposition was officially reduced to only the MNC-K and some individuals. [138][139][140], Later that night, Lumumba was driven to an isolated spot where three firing squads had been assembled. Upon his return, he recommended that the body remain in recess for three months so that its members could go on study tours. Though the government had earned just as many votes as when Kasongo won the presidency of the Chamber, the support was not congruent; members of Kamitatu's wing of the PSA had voted against the government while a few members of the PNP, PUNA, and ABAKO voted in favor of it. Eisenhower. [37] The Chamber proceeded to engage in a heated debate. [144][145], Both Belgium and the US were affected by the Cold War in their attitude to Lumumba, as they feared he was increasingly subject to communist influence. Non profit activists in the U.S. and Congo are collaborating in a new effort to shepherd Congolese youth who will honor the legacy of Patrice Lumumba. The Canadians rebuffed a request for technicians and said that they would channel their assistance through the UN. Despite the arrival of UN troops, unrest continued. [76] Lumumba and Kasa-Vubu were denied use of Élisabethville's airstrip the following day and returned to the capital, only to be accosted by fleeing Belgians. Some undertook specific missions on his behalf, sometimes without direct permission. [72] On the whole, the Belgian intervention made the situation worse for the ANC.[75]. [210] His figure is prevalent in art and literature, mostly outside of the Congo. See Patrice Loko's bio, transfer history and stats here. [102] Lumumba was constantly being delivered rumors from informants and the Sûreté, encouraging him to grow deeply suspicious of others. [187] Most Africanists of the 20th century, such as Jean-Claude Willame, viewed Lumumba as an intransigent, unrealistic idealist without any tangible programme who distanced himself from his contemporaries and alienated the Western world with radical anti-colonial rhetoric. Lumumba had a large popular following, due to his personal charisma, excellent oratory, and ideological sophistication. Lumumba had summoned an African conference in Leopoldville from 25–31 August, but no foreign heads of state appeared and no country pledged military support. When he returned to New York the following evening, he was restrained towards the UN. [74], Belgium intervened on 10 July, dispatching 6,000 troops to the Congo, ostensibly to protect its citizens from the violence. [75] Lumumba and Kasa-Vubu embarked on a tour across the country to promote peace and appoint new ANC commanders. He continued to hold meetings with members of his government, senators, deputies, and political supporters, and to issue public statements. The execution is thought to have taken place on 17 January 1961, between 21:40 and 21:43 (according to the Belgian report). [110][h] Lumumba noted this in a letter to Hammarskjöld and a radio broadcast at 05:30 on 6 September. The operation was successful, but the conflict soon devolved into ethnic violence. [184] Belgian literature in the decades following the Congo Crisis portrayed him as incompetent, demagogic, aggressive, ungrateful, undiplomatic, and communist. In spite of government efforts, the mutinies continued. The conference culminated on 27 January with a declaration of Congolese independence. [18] He was charged with advising Baudouin on the selection of a formateur. [173] However, documents released in 2017 revealed that an American role in Lumumba's murder was only under consideration by the CIA. [132] Hammarskjöld, answering Soviet criticism of his Congo operations, said that if the UN forces were withdrawn from the Congo, "I fear everything will crumble.". All were to devote special attention to ending racial discrimination. [184] He was referenced by numerous African-American writers of the American civil rights movement, especially in their works of the post-civil rights era. [5], After his release, Lumumba helped found the Mouvement National Congolais (MNC) party on 5 October 1958, and quickly became the organization's leader. Lumumba was confined to his home. The first outlawed the formation of associations without government sanction. Nzongola-Ntalaja further posited that, as a result of Lumumba's high praise of the independence movement and his work to end the Katangese secession, "the people of the Congo are likely to remain steadfast in their defense of national unity and territorial integrity, come hell or high water. Rather than a complex doctrine, it is usually framed as a set of fundamental principles consisting of nationalism, Pan-Africanism, nonalignment, and social progressivism. Partager sur Facebook. Kasa-Vubu, was slow to come to a final decision. Ce tableau retrace les meilleurs buteurs du Championnat de France de football par saison depuis sa création en 1932 [2]. Pour être tenu au courant des futures mises à jour du site et y participer, inscrivez-vous: En vous inscrivant vous pourrez si vous le souhaitez être prévenu par email en cas de nouveauté (article, commentaire, sujet sur le forum) et personnaliser votre profil pour participer au site. 2004 ... Ensuite au Congo Brazzaville avec mon frère, à la rencontre de notre famille et de nos amis congolais. The trial's start date of 18 January 1960 was the first day of the Congolese Round Table Conference in Brussels, intended to make a plan for the future of the Congo. All dissident arguments for alternative cabinets, particularly Kalonji's demand for a new administration, were rendered impotent, and the Lumumba Government was officially invested. This was apparently done to put pressure on Hammarskjöld and, that failing, seek guarantees of bilateral military support to suppress Katanga. [69] Although the trouble was highly localized, the country seemed to be overrun by gangs of soldiers and looters. [7][8] He was a member of the Tetela ethnic group and was born with the name Élias Okit'Asombo. Lumumba's murder should be a lesson for all of us. Conflict was avoided, but it became apparent that holding a controversial prisoner in the camp was too great a risk. [10] He had three brothers (Charles Lokolonga, Émile Kalema, and Louis Onema Pene Lumumba) and one half-brother (Tolenga Jean). Everything he wrote, said and did was the product of someone who knew his vocation to be that of a liberator, and he represents for the Congo what Castro does for Cuba, Nasser for Egypt, Nkrumah for Ghana, Mao Tse-tung for China, and Lenin for Russia. He professed his personal preference for neutrality between the East and West. Les meilleures offres pour Fiche Onze Mondial - Patrice Loko sont sur eBay Comparez les prix et les spécificités des produits neufs et d'occasion Pleins d'articles en livraison gratuite! [115] Instead of directly attacking Kasa-Vubu ad hominem, Lumumba accused obstructionist politicians and ABAKO of using the presidency as a front for disguising their activities. "[12], Outside of his regular studies, Lumumba took an interest in the Enlightenment ideals of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Voltaire. Lumumba, fearing the repercussions the raise would have on the budget, was among the few to object, dubbing it a "ruinous folly". [183] Congolese university students—who had up until independence held little respect for Lumumba—embraced Lumumbisme after his death. [174][175] CIA Chief Allan Dulles had allocated $100,000 to accomplish the act, but the plan was not carried out. [169] The interview from the Senate Intelligence Committee's inquiry on covert action was released in August 2000. The Ghanaians suspected that Belgium and the United States were responsible. [201], Lumumba's death began to take on great significance in the collective memory of the Congolese people in the immediate years after his passing. With them, he announced again his dismissal of Lumumba and six other ministers at 16:00 over Brazzaville radio. [16], Lumumba was one of the delegates who represented the MNC at the All-African Peoples' Conference in Accra, Ghana, in December 1958. He visited several African states. Frustrated, Lumumba met with the Soviet ambassador and discussed a donation of military equipment. [clarification needed] The media reported those Europeans fleeing the country. The 57 absences were almost all voluntary. My government will make every possible effort to see that our country has a different face in a few months, a few weeks." This failed when Lumumba flatly refused the position of prime minister in a Kasa-Vubu government. In late October 1959, Lumumba, as leader of the MNC, was arrested for inciting an anti-colonial riot in Stanleyville; 30 people were killed. The possibility of a direct Soviet intervention was thought increasingly likely. 1ère sélection : le 17 février 1993 contre l'Israël (4-0), Dernière sélection : le 7 juin 1997 contre l'Angleterre (0-1), 1988/95 FC Nantes (FRA) 206 matchs, 48 buts, (Championnat de France: 180 matchs, 41 buts), 1995/98 Paris SG (FRA) 115 matchs, 35 buts, (Championnat de France: 84 matchs, 23 buts), 1998/99 FC Lorient (FRA) 22 matchs, 9 buts, (Championnat de France: 20 matchs, 9 buts), 1999/2000 Montpellier (FRA) 41 matchs, 11 buts, (Championnat de France: 26 matchs, 8 buts), 2001 Olympique Lyonnais (FRA) 8 matchs, 1 but, (Championnat de France: 27 matchs, 8 buts), 2002/04 FC Lorient (FRA) 59 matchs, 13 buts, (Championnat de France de D2: 48 matchs, 10 buts).

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