The steward of his money fled to Rhodes, and was arrested by a Macedonian officer, Philoxenus. [178] Another nickname of Demosthenes was "Argas." However, Antipater, Alexander's successor, quelled all opposition and demanded that the Athenians turn over Demosthenes and Hypereides, among others. [114], In 324 BC Harpalus, to whom Alexander had entrusted huge treasures, absconded and sought refuge in Athens. xi + 558. Philippe II (en grec ancien : Φίλιππος / Phílippos), né en 382 av. Il doit ensuite se résoudre à accepter la suzeraineté de Bardylis, roi des Illyriens, dont il épouse la fille, Audata. [188], i. J.-C., il investit la Thessalie et vainc Onomarchos à la bataille du Champ de Crocus. After Philip's death, Demosthenes played a leading part in his city's uprising against the new king of Macedonia, Alexander the Great. Dans la foulée, il s'empare de Phères et se fait élire à la tête de la Ligue thessalienne. [159] In the end, sixty-one orations attributed to Demosthenes survived till the present day (some however are pseudonymous). [120] On the other hand, Polybius, a Greek historian of the Mediterranean world, was highly critical of Demosthenes' policies. [3], Demosthenes was born in 384 BC, during the last year of the 98th Olympiad or the first year of the 99th Olympiad. [g] Despite Demosthenes' strong advocacy, the Athenians would not manage to prevent the falling of the city to the Macedonians. According to James J. Murphy, Professor emeritus of Rhetoric and Communication at the University of California, Davis, his lifelong career as a logographer continued even during his most intense involvement in the political struggle against Philip. On citera également pour mémoire le compte rendu par Eschine du discours avorté de Démosthène devant Philippe de Macédoine lors de la seconde ambassade (Sur l'ambassade infidèle, 34-35). Philippe encourage l'Eubée à se révolter contre Athènes avec pour objectif d'empêcher les Athéniens d'aider Olynthe. ¡Descárgate ya la versión de eBook! [123] He is criticised for having overrated Athens's capacity to revive and challenge Macedon. Thèbes est plus sévèrement punie : la cité est occupée par une garnison macédonienne, la Ligue de Béotie est dissoute. [132] From his part, George A. Kennedy believes that his political speeches in the ekklesia were to become "the artistic exposition of reasoned views". I. Apostolidis, note 1229 (with further references), inarticulate and stammering pronunciation, "Demosthenes – Greek statesman and orator". J.-C., devient rapidement une alliance militaire (symmachie) ayant pour finalité l'invasion de l'Asie Mineure alors sous la tutelle des Perses achéménides, le prétexte étant de venger la profanation des sanctuaires grecs lors des guerres médiques et de « libérer » les cités grecques d'Ionie et de Lydie notamment. Demosthenes grew interested in politics during his time as a logographer, and in 354 BC he gave his first public political speeches. In 335 BC Alexander felt free to engage the Thracians and the Illyrians, but, while he was campaigning in the north, Demosthenes spread a rumour—even producing a bloodstained messenger—that Alexander and all of his expeditionary force had been slaughtered by the Triballians. Demosthenes received vast sums for the many decrees and laws he proposed. [49] All these speeches, which offer early glimpses of his general principles on foreign policy, such as the importance of the navy, of alliances and of national honour,[50] are prosecutions (γραφὴ παρανόμων, graphē paranómōn) against individuals accused of illegally proposing legislative texts. De retour en Macédoine, Philippe prend le pouvoir à la mort de son frère Perdiccas III en 359 av. Fort d’une armée qu'il a reformée, Philippe affronte et vainc d'abord les Péoniens qui menacent le Nord de la Macédoine. [69], From this moment until 341 BC, all of Demosthenes' speeches referred to the same issue, the struggle against Philip. According to Jacqueline de Romilly, a French philologist and member of the Académie française, the threat of Philip would give Demosthenes' stances a focus and a raison d'être. [161], Some of the speeches that comprise the "Demosthenic corpus" are known to have been written by other authors, though scholars differ over which speeches these are. For a time, Demosthenes made his living as a professional speech-writer (logographer) and a lawyer, writing speeches for use in private legal suits. [153], In modern history, orators such as Henry Clay would mimic Demosthenes' technique. [76] There is no consensus among scholars either on whether Demosthenes finally delivered Against Meidias or on the veracity of Aeschines' accusation that Demosthenes was bribed to drop the charges. Elle est contrainte de signer la paix de Démade, d'intégrer la coalition macédonienne et d'accorder à Philippe la citoyenneté athénienne. Histoire De Philippe, Roi De Macédoine Et Le Père D'alexandre Le Grand...: Olivier, Claude-Matthieu: Libros [142] Moreover, his delivery was not accepted by everybody in antiquity: Demetrius Phalereus and the comedians ridiculed Demosthenes' "theatricality", whilst Aeschines regarded Leodamas of Acharnae as superior to him. [156], The "publication" and distribution of prose texts was common practice in Athens by the latter half of the fourth century BC and Demosthenes was among the Athenian politicians who set the trend, publishing many or even all of his orations. [118] Years after Demosthenes' suicide, the Athenians erected a statue to honour him and decreed that the state should provide meals to his descendants in the Prytaneum. He then turned south-east down the Cephissus valley, seized Elateia, and restored the fortifications of the city. La frontière avec l’Illyrie est repoussée au-delà du lac Lychnidos (lac d'Ohrid)[2]. [130] He is, therefore, regarded as a consummate orator, adept in the techniques of oratory, which are brought together in his work. 338 avant J.-C. Thèbes et Athènes sont vaincues à Chéronée par Philippe de Macédoine. E.M. Burke, "The Early Political Speeches of Demosthenes", 180–183. En outre, Philippe dote le fantassin d'une longue pique de 5 mètres de long environ, la sarisse, établissant ainsi les fondements de la phalange macédonienne. From then until the fourth centuryAD, copies of Demosthenes' orations multiplied and they were in a relatively good position to survive the tense period from the sixth until the ninth century AD. [117], After Alexander's death in 323 BC, Demosthenes again urged the Athenians to seek independence from Macedon in what became known as the Lamian War. According to Aeschines, "it was but the seventh day after the death of his daughter, and though the ceremonies of mourning were not yet completed, he put a garland on his head and white raiment on his body, and there he stood making thank-offerings, violating all decency. Philippe augmente le nombre de fantassins et crée un bataillon d'élite, les hypaspistes, calqué sur le Bataillon sacré de Thèbes. [157] After his death, texts of his speeches survived in Athens (possibly forming part of the library of Cicero's friend, Atticus, though their fate is otherwise unknown), and in the Library of Alexandria. A. J. L. Blanshard & T. A. Sowerby, "Thomas Wilson's Demosthenes", 46–47, 51–55; A. J. L. Blanshard & T. A. Sowerby, "Thomas Wilson's Demosthenes", 46–47, 51–55. In the three Olynthiacs, Demosthenes criticised his compatriots for being idle and urged Athens to help Olynthus. [131], d. ^ "Batalus" or "Batalos" meant "stammerer" in ancient Greek, but it was also the name of a flute-player (in ridicule of whom Antiphanes wrote a play) and of a songwriter. [165] Modern scholars are divided: some reject them, while others, such as Blass, believe they are authentic. ^ According to Plutarch, Demosthenes deserted his colours and "did nothing honorable, nor was his performance answerable to his speeches". [n], a. [134] Dionysius stated that Demosthenes' only shortcoming is the lack of humour, although Quintilian regards this deficiency as a virtue. [169] According to Aeschines, Gylon received as a gift from the Bosporan rulers a place called "the Gardens" in the colony of Kepoi in present-day Russia (located within two miles (3 km) of Phanagoria). They were collected for the Library of Alexandria by Callimachus, who believed them genuine. II: 88 plates. According to a story repeated by Plutarch, when Demosthenes was an adolescent, his curiosity was noticed by the orator Callistratus, who was then at the height of his reputation, having just won a case of considerable importance. [190], k. ^ The exact chronology of Harpalus's entrance into Athens and of all the related events remains a debated topic among modern scholars, who have proposed different, and sometimes conflicting, chronological schemes. During this period, he wrote Against Androtion and Against Leptines, two fierce attacks on individuals who attempted to repeal certain tax exemptions. [17] Aeschines claims that Demosthenes made money out of young rich men, such as Aristarchus, the son of Moschus, whom he allegedly deceived with the pretence that he could make him a great orator. [103][104] Nonetheless, Alexander moved swiftly to Thebes, which submitted shortly after his appearance at its gates. The wording is even more telling in Greek, ending with an accumulation of plosive pi sounds: οὐ μόνον οὐχ Ἕλληνος ὄντος οὐδὲ προσήκοντος οὐδὲν τοῖς Ἕλλησιν, ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ βαρβάρου ἐντεῦθεν ὅθεν καλὸν εἰπεῖν, ἀλλ᾽ ὀλέθρου Μακεδόνος, ὅθεν οὐδ᾽ ἀνδράποδον σπουδαῖον οὐδὲν ἦν πρότερον πρίασθαι. Philippe II de Macédoine (Biographies Historiques): Corvisier, Jean-Nicolas: Libros en idiomas extranjeros Selecciona Tus Preferencias de Cookies Utilizamos cookies y herramientas similares para mejorar tu experiencia de compra, prestar nuestros servicios, entender cómo los utilizas para poder mejorarlos, y para mostrarte anuncios. [99] After a few trivial encounters between the two sides, which resulted in minor Athenian victories, Philip drew the phalanx of the Athenian and Theban confederates into a plain near Chaeronea, where he defeated them. Because in his heart he knows, and is confident, and has learned to trust the State, that no one shall seize or insult or strike him. E. M. Burke, "The Early Political Speeches of Demosthenes", 175, 185. [176] The word "batalus" was also used by the Athenians to describe the anus. [179], e. ^ Both Tsatsos and Weil maintain that Demosthenes never abandoned the profession of the logographer, but, after delivering his first political orations, he wanted to be regarded as a statesman. [91] When the Macedonian army approached Chersonese (now known as the Gallipoli Peninsula), an Athenian general named Diopeithes ravaged the maritime district of Thrace, thereby inciting Philip's rage. Mais le siège de Pitané échoue, malgré l’arrivée de renforts et il doit se replier en Troade, puis à Abydos. He also accused Demosthenes of having been such a bad erastes to Aristarchus so as not even to deserve the name. Il s’empare de Grynéion (en), près de Pergame, pour ensuite se diriger vers Pitané où Memnon de Rhodes, alors à Cyzique pour réprimer la cité, revient pour en assurer la défense. He then sent a dispatch to Athens, in which he gave a list of the persons who had taken a bribe from Harpalus. ", The sentiments to which Demosthenes appeals throughout his numerous orations, are those of the noblest and largest patriotism; trying to inflame the ancient Grecian sentiment of an autonomous Hellenic world, as the indispensable condition of a dignified and desirable existence. He was mindful of his arrangement, he used clauses to create patterns that would make seemingly complex sentences easy for the hearer to follow. [38], To make his living, Demosthenes became a professional litigant, both as a "logographer" (λογογράφος, logographos), writing speeches for use in private legal suits, and as an advocate (συνήγορος, sunégoros) speaking on another's behalf. En 337, Philippe réunit les cités grecques lors du congrès de Corinthe et fonde la Ligue de Corinthe ou Ligue des Hellènes. J.-C., il remporte une grande victoire sur les Illyriens. Philippe fait donc appel au début de l’année 336 à ses deux généraux de confiance, Parménion et Attale, pour diriger un corps expéditionnaire, profitant de l'affaiblissement de l'Empire perse à la suite de la mort d'Artaxerxès III. ^ According to Tsatsos, the trials against the guardians lasted until Demosthenes was twenty four. He committed suicide before his capture by taking poison out of a reed, pretending he wanted to write a letter to his family. [168] Gylon had suffered banishment at the end of the Peloponnesian War for allegedly betraying Nymphaeum in Crimaea. He went on to devote his most productive years to opposing Macedon's expansion. La puissance de charge est alors accrue, d'autant plus que les masses de tous les soldats se cumulent tant la formation est serrée. However, the use of physical gestures wasn't an integral or developed part of rhetorical training in his day. ", "Just think. After this significant victory, Philip swiftly entered Phocis in 338 BC. [86], In 344 BC Demosthenes travelled to the Peloponnese, to detach as many cities as possible from Macedon's influence, but his efforts were generally unsuccessful. [4] His father—also named Demosthenes—who belonged to the local tribe, Pandionis, and lived in the deme of Paeania[5] in the Athenian countryside, was a wealthy sword-maker. [170], b. Both Dionysius and Cicero assert that Demosthenes brought together the best features of the basic types of style; he used the middle or normal type style ordinarily and applied the archaic type and the type of plain elegance where they were fitting. La vie et la personnalité de Démosthène (384-322 av. [27] According to Sir Richard C. Jebb, a British classical scholar, "the intercourse between Isaeus and Demosthenes as teacher and learner can scarcely have been either very intimate or of very long duration". La vie et la personnalité de Démosthène ont toujours fasciné les historiens. Cette réforme militaire se fait progressivement au cours du règne de Philippe et est en partie responsable des succès de l'armée macédonienne dans le futur, notamment lors de l'expédition d'Alexandre le Grand[1]. Il est fait interdiction aux cités grecques de se battre entre elles mais elles conservent leur autonomie et leurs institutions propres. ", "We need money, for sure, Athenians, and without money nothing can be done that ought to be done. J.-C. à 336 av. [129], According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, Demosthenes represented the final stage in the development of Attic prose. J.-C., Démosthène prononce la première de ses Olynthiennes afin d'encourager les Athéniens à soutenir militairement la Ligue. [29] These references hint at his respect for a historian he must have assiduously studied. "[15] Demosthenes also sent envoys to Attalus, whom he considered to be an internal opponent of Alexander. Although his father left an estate of nearly fourteen talents (equivalent to about 220 years of a labourer's income at standard wages, or 11 million dollars in terms of median U.S. annual incomes). [64], In 352 BC, Athenian troops successfully opposed Philip at Thermopylae,[65] but the Macedonian victory over the Phocians at the Battle of Crocus Field shook Demosthenes. [123] Nevertheless, the same scholar underscores that "pragmatists" like Aeschines or Phocion had no inspiring vision to rival that of Demosthenes. Demosthenes learned rhetoric by studying the speeches of previous great orators. "[131] In this judgement, Peck agrees with Jaeger, who said that the imminent political decision imbued Demosthenes' speech with a fascinating artistic power. [58], Although his early orations were unsuccessful and reveal a lack of real conviction and of coherent strategic and political prioritisation,[59] Demosthenes established himself as an important political personality and broke with Eubulus' faction, of which a prominent member was Aeschines. Demosthenes accused the other envoys of venality and of facilitating Philip's plans with their stance. [18], Between his coming of age in 366 BC and the trials that took place in 364 BC, Demosthenes and his guardians negotiated acrimoniously but were unable to reach an agreement, for neither side was willing to make concessions. Il est tout de même fait mention d'une lettre adressée par Alexandre à Darius III dans laquelle il blâme le grand roi pour le meurtre de son père[A 2]. [ Carlier, Pierre; ]. " ^ According to Edward Cohen, professor of Classics at the University of Pennsylvania, Cleoboule was the daughter of a Scythian woman and of an Athenian father, Gylon, although other scholars insist on the genealogical purity of Demosthenes. [127] This contrast between Demosthenes' intellectual prowess and his deficiencies in terms of vigour, stamina, military skill and strategic vision is illustrated by the inscription his countrymen engraved on the base of his statue:[128]. [60] He thus laid the foundations for his future political successes and for becoming the leader of his own "party" (the issue of whether the modern concept of political parties can be applied in the Athenian democracy is hotly disputed among modern scholars). La mort de Philippe ne change rien aux plans d'invasion : Parménion fait allégeance à Alexandre qui rejoint le corps expéditionnaire à Abydos en mai 334. [39], Judicial oratory had become a significant literary genre by the second half of the fifth century, as represented in the speeches of Demosthenes' predecessors, Antiphon and Andocides. [51], In Demosthenes' time, different political goals developed around personalities. He was imprisoned after a proposal of Demosthenes and Phocion, despite the dissent of Hypereides, an anti-Macedonian statesman and former ally of Demosthenes. Philippe y voit l'occasion de pousser son influence en Grèce-Centrale de façon définitive. [123] According to Professor of Greek Arthur Wallace Pickarde, success may be a poor criterion for judging the actions of people like Demosthenes, who were motivated by the ideals of democracy political liberty. Had you for Greece been strong, as wise you were, the Macedonian would not have conquered her. Almost simultaneously, probably on Eubulus' recommendation, they engaged in a war in Euboea against Philip, which ended in a stalemate. [199], For other historical and fictional personages named Demosthenes, see, First Philippic and the Olynthiacs (351–349 BC). [52] Such rivalry enabled the "demos" or citizen-body to reign supreme as judge, jury and executioner. Although his father provided for him well, his legal guardians, Aphobus, Demophon and Therippides, mishandled his inheritance. [26], It has also been said that Demosthenes paid Isaeus 10,000 drachmae (somewhat over 1½ talents) on the condition that Isaeus withdraw from a school of rhetoric he had opened and instead devote himself wholly to Demosthenes, his new pupil. He delivered his first judicial speeches at the age of 20, in which he argued effectively to gain from his guardians what was left of his inheritance. Since 357 BC, when Philip seized Amphipolis and Pydna, Athens had been formally at war with the Macedonians. [54], In 354 BC, Demosthenes delivered his first political oration, On the Navy, in which he espoused moderation and proposed the reform of the symmoriai (boards) as a source of funding for the Athenian fleet. [12] When all the trials came to an end,[b] he only succeeded in retrieving a portion of his inheritance. The Macedonian army swiftly proclaimed Alexander III of Macedon, then twenty years old, as the new King of Macedon. Il doit se résoudre à accepter une alliance avec la cité de Thèbes, alliance qui est scellée par l'envoi de son jeune frère comme otage. In both speeches he opposed Eubulus, the most powerful Athenian statesman of the period 355 to 342 BC. [31] Some citizens, however, discerned his talent. E. M. Burke, "The Early Political Speeches of Demosthenes", 177–178. the diversion of Theoric Funds to military purposes). For Edmund M. Burke, this speech heralds a maturation in Demosthenes' career: after Philip's successful campaign in 346 BC, the Athenian statesman realised that, if he was to lead his city against the Macedonians, he had "to adjust his voice, to become less partisan in tone". Logographers were a unique aspect of the Athenian justice system: evidence for a case was compiled by a magistrate in a preliminary hearing and litigants could present it as they pleased within set speeches; however, witnesses and documents were popularly mistrusted (since they could be secured by force or bribery), there was little cross-examination during the trial, there were no instructions to the jury from a judge, no conferencing between jurists before voting, the juries were huge (typically between 201 and 501 members), cases depended largely on questions of probable motive, and notions of natural justice were felt to take precedence over written law—conditions that favoured artfully constructed speeches.[40]. [80] Despite his suggestions, the Athenian envoys, including himself and Aeschines, remained in Pella, until Philip successfully concluded his campaign in Thrace. The divine power seems originally to have designed Demosthenes and Cicero upon the same plan, giving them many similarities in their natural characters, as their passion for distinction and their love of liberty in civil life, and their want of courage in dangers and war, and at the same time also to have added many accidental resemblances. In 341 BC Demosthenes was sent to Byzantium, where he sought to renew its alliance with Athens. E. M. Burke, "The Early Political Speeches of Demosthenes", 181–182. [36] According to one story, when he was asked to name the three most important elements in oratory, he replied "Delivery, delivery and delivery! Demosthenes dealt in policies and ideas, and war was not his business. Aeschines and Dinarchus also maintained that when the Arcadians offered their services for ten talents, Demosthenes refused to furnish the money to the Thebans, who were conducting the negotiations, and so the Arcadians sold out to the Macedonians. Friedrich Blass, a German classical scholar, believes that nine more speeches were recorded by the orator, but they are not extant. (Ecole Française d'Athènes, Travaux et Mémoires, Fasc. "And had it not been for the King's magnanimity and regard for his own reputation, their misfortunes would have gone even further, thanks to the policy of Demosthenes". Cette victoire lui assure l'hégémonie en Grèce. Il est le père d'Alexandre le Grand. [50] E. M. Burke argues that, if this was indeed a law of Eubulus, it would have served "as a means to check a too-aggressive and expensive interventionism [...] allowing for the controlled expenditures on other items, including construction for defense". [194], m. ^ Blass disputes the authorship of the following speeches: Fourth Philippic, Funeral Oration, Erotic Essay, Against Stephanus 2 and Against Evergus and Mnesibulus,[195] while Schaefer recognises as genuine only twenty-nine orations. To prevent a similar revolt against his own rule, Alexander's successor in this region, Antipater, sent his men to track Demosthenes down. [187] Philipp August Böckh also accepted Aeschines's account for an out-of-court settlement, and concluded that the speech was never delivered. However, when an Athenian delegation arrived at Pella to put Philip under oath, which was required to conclude the treaty, he was campaigning abroad. This proposal became a political issue and, in 330 BC, Aeschines prosecuted Ctesiphon on charges of legal irregularities. [131] However, he gave the most elaborate preparation to all his speeches and, therefore, his arguments were the products of careful study. Throughout his career "we trace the same combination of earnest patriotism with wise and long-sighted policy." Il est considéré par le philosophe péripatéticien Théophraste comme le plus grand des rois de Macédoine, non seulement par sa fortune, mais encore par sa sagesse et sa modération. [80] Being very anxious about the delay, Demosthenes insisted that the embassy should travel to the place where they would find Philip and swear him in without delay. Demosthenes celebrated Philip's assassination and played a leading part in his city's uprising. [32] Another time, after the ekklesia had refused to hear him and he was going home dejected, an actor named Satyrus followed him and entered into a friendly conversation with him. [9], As soon as Demosthenes came of age in 366 BC, he demanded his guardians render an account of their management. Il donne à son armée un entraînement strict et un armement repensé : le soldat macédonien reçoit un armement défensif (armure, cnémides, bouclier) plus léger que celui de l'hoplite, dont l'ensemble de l'équipement pèse environ 35 kg. [c] According to Plutarch, Demosthenes employed Isaeus as his master in rhetoric, even though Isocrates was then teaching this subject, either because he could not pay Isocrates the prescribed fee or because Demosthenes believed Isaeus' style better suited a vigorous and astute orator such as himself. When the committee counted the treasure, they found they only had half the money Harpalus had declared he possessed. His orations constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight into the politics and culture of ancient Greece during the 4th century BC. [45] He was among the first ever volunteer trierarchs in 357 BC, sharing the expenses of a ship called Dawn, for which the public inscription still survives. "[192] On the other hand, Plutarch believes that Harpalus sent Demosthenes a cup with twenty talents and that "Demosthenes could not resist the temptation, but admitting the present, ... he surrendered himself up to the interest of Harpalus. Demosthenes encouraged the fortification of Athens and was chosen by the ekklesia to deliver the Funeral Oration.

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