Nicolas Poussin is a French painter who is generally credited for having pioneered the classic French painting style. Nicolas Poussin - Nicolas Poussin - The final years: Poussin continued to paint three or four pictures a year in the 1650s, despite being increasingly ill. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. A French classical painter, Nicolas Poussin has been an inspiration for countless number of great artists since the 17th century. His clientele changes; from this point on, he seems to depend on a circle of experts, including Commendatore Cassiano dal Pozzo who is collecting documents illustrating life in ancient Rome and calls on artists to draw various accounts of imperial Rome: classical sculpture, ancient architecture. MAIN A-Z INDEX - A-Z of ARTISTS. • 1665 : Dies in Rome. L’art de Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) est réputé difficile et réservé aux seuls initiés. At the end of the 1640s, the landscape becomes the indifferent location of the ephemeral destiny of man (The Funeral of Phocion), rigorously constructed upon an intellectual mode, in opposition with the misfortunes of human destinies. Biography of Nicolas Poussin. Nicolas Poussin : biographie, actualités et … He creates a new genre, the “ideal landscape”, recomposed in the studio, where we find the idea of an intimate liaison between nature and man, put in its place at the centre of a majestic setting – a derivative of his neo-stoicism. Ses compositions ont influencé après sa mort de nombreux peintres ; mais aussi certains courants du XXe siècle comme le cubisme. Nicolas Poussin, (born June 1594, Les Andelys, Normandy [France]—died November 19, 1665, Rome, Papal States [Italy]), French painter and draftsman who founded the French Classical tradition. Vie et oeuvre du peintre Nicolas Poussin. Apollo in Love with Daphne, painted in 1664 and incomplete upon his death, summarises the strange traits of his final period: the wildness and grandeur of the inanimate, calm and emotionless nature of the human actors, which come directly from the mind of the artist. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. • 1642 : Returns to Rome (he does not leave the city again) The years of 1630-1640 correspond to the first real period of Poussin, immersed in an atmosphere of passionate and erudite archaeological studies, during which he paints Rinaldo and Armida, or The Arcadian Shepherds – Et In Arcadia Ego, which is influenced by the poetry of Titian. In Paris, most likely working at the studio of Nancy-born Georges Lallemant. Nicolas Poussin was born near Les Andelys in Normandy where he began his study of art. Many of these works depict the Holy Family, a purely contemplative theme ideally suited to the serenity of his art during that phase. Biography; Nicolas Poussin Nicolas Poussin. During this period he was introduced to engravings after the masters of the Italian Renaissance; this work inspired in him such enthusiasm that he made two attempts to visit Rome, both abortive, between 1619 and 1622. En témoigne l’immense littérature qui lui a été consacrée depuis le 17e siècle. Huile sur toile, 80 × 87,5 cm, Dulwich Picture Gallery, Londres. Biography of POUSSIN, Nicolas (b. Stricken with illness about 1630, Poussin was nursed back to health by the family of Jacques Dughet, whose daughter, Anne-Marie, he married the same year. Inspired by comparable compositions on ancient sarcophagi, this is the first heroic deathbed scene in the artist’s career—and in the entire history of painting—and it spawned countless later imitations. Peintre d'histoire, compositions religieuses, mythologiques, à personnages, ou encore de paysages animés. Biographie de Nicolas Poussin. • 1650-1665 : The landscape is taking a dominant place in his last compositions, where nature takes on a new character: no longer orderly and subject to the laws of reason but wild, invading the painting where man occupies an increasingly negligible space > The Four Seasons – synthesis of his late style, Landscape with Diana and Orion Towards 1645, the painter begins to take an interest in landscapes, preserving the mathematical order of The Holy Family on the Steps and applying it to nature, with the whole thing being artfully organised thanks to buildings that geographically organise the space. After a period of real poverty, he receives several significant orders, including an altarpiece for Saint-Pierre: The Martyrdom of Saint Erasmus, a large-scale work which is not very well received. Juni 1594 in Les Andelys, Normandie; † 19. 1624 Nicolas Poussin, 17th century classical painter, • 1594 : Born near Les Andelys (Normandy, France) Nicolas Poussin Biography. Le nom de Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665) est associé au classicisme français et au règne de Louis XIII, bien que l’artiste ait passé la majeure partie de sa carrière à Rome. Il suit des études probablement dans une école élémentaire puis dans un c… • 1630-1640 : 1st period in Rome. Poussin’s artistic mastery is really revealed in The Empire of Flora, a complex composition painted 1631. Dans la mythologie romaine, Vénus est la déesse de lamour, de la séduction et de la beauté et Mercure le dieu du commerce, des voyages et le messager des autres dieux. He seeks the concentration of effects rather than their richness by limiting vocabulary as much as possible. Il est le fils de Jean Poussin (né vers 1555-1560), né d'une petite famille noble de Soissons et arrivé en Normandie après la prise de Vernon en 1590 pendant les guerres de religion. Nicolas Poussin was a French artist known for his paintings and drawings of Arcadian landscapes and historic narratives. Biographie, portrait pour connaître la vie, naissance et mort d'un personnage historique, de notre histoire, célèbre ou méconnu. Until the discovery of The Death of the Virgin, the so-called “Marino drawings” were the only certain works to survive from his pre-Roman years. in a more rigorous manner: The Adoration of the Magi, The Adoration of the Golden Calf or The Crossing of the Red Sea. See available paintings, works on paper, and prints and multiples for sale and learn about the artist. November 1665 in Rom) war ein französischer Maler des klassizistischen Barocks. POUSSIN, NICOLAS (1594 – 1665), French painter. He does not leave the Eternal City again. The Four Seasons (painted between 1660 and 1664 for the Duke of Richelieu) constitute the synthesis of his late style: in a setting emphasising the beauty of nature, the theme of the succession of the season merges with that of hours, periods of human life; the biblical narrative combines with classical mythology in a synthesis between Christianity and paganism. Vénus et Mercure (1626-27). 1594, Les Andelys, d. 1665, Roma) in the Web Gallery of Art, a searchable image collection and database of European painting, sculpture and architecture (200-1900) 1665 (November) In these paintings, nature takes on a new character: it is no longer orderly and subject to the laws of reason but wild, invading the painting where man occupies an increasingly negligible space. This talent was encouraged by the itinerant painter Quentin Varin, who visited Les Andelys in 1611–12 and became Poussin’s first teacher. Depuis 1624, actif aussi en Italie. The Israelites Gathering the Manna in the Desert. Main source (see bibliography): Landscapes give new impetus to his creations. Destitute, Poussin executed a large number of biblical and mythological paintings in the hope of finding buyers. He also comes back to mythological accounts, but from a different perspective: he wishes to express a truth, evoking the major eternal forces. About 1622 Poussin executed six large tempera paintings for the Jesuits (none of those survive), and in the following year he received a commission for a painting in a Notre-Dame chapel. Soon after his arrival, his early champion, Marino, moved from Rome to Naples, where he died in 1625. However, an increasing level of skill in draftsmanship and use of colour in the large number of paintings datable to this period have led to a general consensus among scholars of the progression of his art between 1624 and 1627. Aged 17, Poussin left Normandy for bigger and better things, namely the bustling metropolis of Paris. « Cette toile est le plus grand des deux fragments d'une peinture de Poussin. • 1642-1650 : The most fruitful period of his career, creating the most perfect expressions of French classicism, where he seeks the concentration of effects rather than their richness by limiting vocabulary as much as possible > 2d version of The Arcadian Shepherds, 2d set of Seven Sacraments, Eliezer and Rebecca… Nicolas Poussin, (born June 1594, Les Andelys, Normandy [France]—died November 19, 1665, Rome, Papal States [Italy]), French painter and draftsman who … Updates? 1594 (June) 1612 Poussin’s altarpiece did not meet with critical acclaim, however, and it effectively helped to end his career as a public painter in Rome. Nicolas Poussin was born near the town in Les Andelys in Normandy in 1594. We see the influence of Descartes in the mathematical construction of the space in the painting, for example in The Holy Family on the Steps dating from 1648, where the whole space is organised in geometric terms. Having more or less become a recluse, working more to satisfy his need to paint than to please others, his final works reflect internal soul-searching. He is charged with creating two altarpieces, painting two large allegoric canvases for Richelieu and decorating the Grande Galerie of the Louvre Palace, even though he has become used to small canvases. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. During this time, he meets his first patron, Italian Giambattista Marino, known in France as the “Cavalier Marin”, poet to Marie de Medici, who commissions him to do a suite of drawings illustrating Ovid’s Metamorphoses. In their emotional intensity these pictures reveal an ardent Romanticism in the young Poussin that he would soon suppress. His work is a salient example of lucid control by the mind over the senses. His earliest works are characterized by a sensuality and colouristic richness indebted to Venetian art, especially to Titian, but by 1633 Poussin had repudiated this overtly seductive style in favour of a more rational and disciplined manner that owed much to the Classicism of Raphael and antiquity. POUSSIN, NICOLAS (1594 – 1665). The fruits of these studies are apparent in his first great masterpiece, The Death of Germanicus (1627), painted for Cardinal Francesco Barberini. Nicolas Poussin, the greatest French artist of the 17th century, is considered one of the founders of European classicism, a movement in art, based on antique and Renaissance heritage. Nicolas Poussin was a famous French painter and draftsman who became a central figure of the Roman and European art in the seventeenth century. Returns to Paris in December, under pressure from Sublet de Noyers and, indirectly, Louis XIII and Richelieu. The Notre-Dame painting, The Death of the Virgin (1623), went missing following the French Revolution and was known until the 21st century only by a preparatory drawing. The artist executed the majority of his canvases in this intensely idealized style. His father served in a senior position under Karl IX and Henry of Navarra. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665): Biography of Classical Baroque Painter, Noted for Allegorical Paintings like Rape of the Sabine Women (Louvre) Nicolas Poussin Biography of French Classical Baroque Painter. With Moses saved from the Water, painted in 1651, Poussin succeeds in translating the commotion of the women discovering the child through the contrast of the drapery. Sa mère est Marie de Laisement (née vers 1560), la fille d'un échevin de la ville et jeune veuve quand elle se marie à Jean en 1592. Arrives in Rome, after having spent several months in Venice. Poussin seeks to translate the emotions of different people through their gestures and facial expressions: the viewer should be able to feel what is felt by each actor and to decipher their role in history (The rape of the Sabine Women, The Israelites Gathering the Manna in the Desert). Above all the painter finds his inspiration in poetic subjects > The Inspiration of the Poet He was schooled in many subjects, including Latin and letters, but showed a talent for drawing (he was apparently scolded by his teachers for doodling in his books). 1630 Actif aussi en Italie à partir de 1624. Dictionnaire biographique des célébrités et personnages historiques. Having worked pretty much all of his life in Rome, Poussin is renowned for his paintings that depicted mythology and ancient history. Nicolas Poussin naît en 1594 en Normandie. The painting was discovered in a small church in the town of Sterrebeek outside Brussels and restored. The misfortunes of god are once again opposed with the eternal grandeur of nature, which works alone to provide the formal structure of the painting. L'un des plus grands maîtres classiques de la peinture française, génie européen, comme le rappelle l'exposition Nicolas Poussin de 1994 à Paris, à l'occasion de la célébratio… He was the child of a noble family who had fallen on hard times. Nicolas Poussin, né au hameau de Villers, commune des Andelys, en juin 1594, mort à Rome le 19 novembre 1665, est un peintre français du XVII e siècle, représentant majeur du classicisme pictural. Courte biographie de Nicolas Poussin : les dates clés • 1594 : Naissance près des Andelys (Normandie, France) • 1624 : Arrivée à Rome, 1ère commande importante pour Saint-Pierre.Le peintre trouve surtout son inspiration dans des sujets poétiques > L’Inspiration du Poète Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Nicolas Poussin’s early biographer was his friend Giovanni Pietro Bellori, who relates that Poussin was born near Les Andelys in Normandy and that he received an education that included some Latin, which would stand him in good stead. Though his reputation was eclipsed in the first half of the 18th century, it enjoyed a spectacular revival later that century in the Neoclassical art of Jacques-Louis David and his followers and has remained high ever since. The same applies to the second series of the Seven Sacraments, which was completed for Chantelou between 1644 et 1648 and is considerably more solemn than the first (the Eucharist) is a good example as one of the most serious works by Poussin). Anthony Blunt, Art et Architecture en France, 1500-1700, Editions Macula, 2000, Your email address will not be published. Nicolas Poussin Biography. Nicolas Poussin [pu'sɛ̃] (* 15. Poussin served his apprenticeship in Rome by making copies after antiquity and the masters of the Renaissance and by studying the works of the Classicizing artists of his own day, including the Bolognese painter Domenichino. About 1627 Poussin became acquainted with the scholar, antiquarian, and collector Cassiano dal Pozzo, who was destined to become his chief Italian patron and one of his closest friends. 1611 Histoire France, Patrimoine. Among these is Paul Freart de Chantelou, secretary to Sublet de Noyers, with whom he maintains extensive correspondence, which provides a wealth of information on his existence, his ideas and his way of working throughout the coming years. In terms of religious themes, he now prefers the New Testament and the fundamental subjects of the Gospels – the Holy Family, the crucifixion, the burial – and works with variations surrounding the victory of will on the passions of stoic Roman historians. Une image plus petite avec putto musicien se trouvait probablement à gauche de ce fragme… Poussin wurde als Sohn eines verarmten Landedelmanns und ehemaligen Soldaten der königlichen Armee geboren. His first years there were marked by hardship and misfortune. He later went on to Paris, where he worked under minor artists who painted in a style that combined the Mannerism of the Second School of Fountainbleau with certain aspects of Italian baroque art. Another early friend and biographer, André Félibien, reported that "He was busy without cease filling his sketchbooks with an infinite number of different figures which only his imagination could produce." Poussin was born in Normandy, in Les-Andelys, in 1594. Find an in-depth biography, exhibitions, original artworks for sale, the latest news, and sold auction prices. The composition is stripped back, constructed using horizontals and verticals only. Biographies, portraits, vie et oeuvre des personnages célèbres ou méconnus de France. • 1640-1642 : Back to Paris under pressure from Louis XIII and Richelieu Falling victim to intrigues on the part of Parisian painters, including Simon Vouet, he decides to return to Rome in September 1642. He spent virtually all of his working life in Rome, where he specialized in history paintings—depicting scenes from the Bible, ancient history, and mythology—that are notable for their narrative clarity and dramatic force. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. He works at his own pace for this small base of clients, taking time to prepare each of his compositions meticulously. Nicolas Poussin was born in Les Andelys on June 15, 1594 and showed a talent for drawing early on. Many of these works are poetic mythologies on themes of unrequited love, which are pervaded by an air of languor and melancholy. Most were never finished, but experimented with different variants of the same theme. A period when, with access to the royal library, he studies the engraved prints of Raphael and Giulio Romano, statuary and antique patterns and the décor of the Second School of Fontainebleau, drawing on stylistic elements. Deciding to concentrate instead on easel pictures of increasing subtlety and refinement, Poussin devoted much of his art of the late 1620s to romantic mythologies inspired by Titian and his fellow Venetians. His family was essentially impoverished nobility: his father, Jean Poussin, was a nobleman who served in the Tavanes regiment under Kings Charles IX, Henry III, and Henry IV. Nicolas Poussin was a highly skilled draughtsman who produced endless numbers of study drawings in preparation for his complex painted compositions. Poussin was a leading pioneer of the classical French Baroque style. 1637 This date represents a turning point: Poussin abandons the search for public orders and their large compositions for Roman churches and palaces to concentrate on medium-sized canvases for a group of very prudent collectors. Omissions? Corrections? Author of. Nicolas Poussin naît en juin 1594 au hameau de Villers dans l'actuelle commune des Andelys. Nicolas Poussin Biography Nicolas Poussin, the greatest French artist of the 17th century, is considered one of the founders of European classicism, a movement in art, based on antique and Renaissance heritage. Here we find the application of his theory of modes: the painting deals with human actions and has to present them in harmony with reason, in a logical and orderly manner, addressing the spirit, not the eye, with each subject demanding its own specific treatment. Detail from, The Great Bacchanal With Woman Playing A … One year later, Pozzo assisted him in securing the commission for The Martyrdom of St. Erasmus, an altarpiece for St. Peter’s. He tries, and fails, to go to Rome on two occasions, then returns to Paris where he meets Philippe de Champaigne and works with him for the Queen Mother at the Luxembourg Palace. His early sketches attracted the notice of Quentin Varin, who passed some … Born in or near the town of Les Andelys in Normandy, Poussin received an education in Latin and letters, but early on he showed an inclination for drawing. View Nicolas Poussin’s 604 artworks on artnet. Nicolas Poussin, né au hameau de Villers, commune des Andelys, le 15 juin 1594, décédé à Rome le 19 novembre 1665, est un peintre français du XVIIe siècle, représentant majeur du classicisme pictural. Nicolas Poussin's early biographer was his friend Giovanni Pietro Bellori, who relates that Poussin was born near Les Andelys in Normandy and that he received an education that included some Latin, which would stand him in good stead. Poussin was born in Normandy, in Les-Andelys, in 1594. The original family name was Lavallée, a name of French origin. Professor of Fine Art; Director, The Barber Institute of Fine Arts, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, West Midlands, England. Following an illness and a wedding, Poussin abandons the large compositions of public orders to concentrate on medium-sized canvases for his group of very prudent collectors > The Empire of Flora, The rape of the Sabine Women, The Manna, 1st set of Seven Sacraments Nicolas Poussin - retrouvez toute l'actualité, nos dossiers et nos émissions sur France Culture, le site de la chaîne des savoirs et de la création. Required fields are marked *. The featured people are reduced to simple geometric forms. This evolution is obvious in the second version of The Arcadian Shepherds, which is calculated, contemplative and philosophical whilst the first version was much more spontaneous, lively and poetic. Nicolas Poussin was born near the town in Les Andelys in Normandy in 1594. The period that follows is the most fruitful of his career, resulting in the most perfect expressions of French classicism. The works for the Jesuits brought him to the attention of the Italian poet Giambattista Marino, who commissioned a series of drawings based on Ovidian mythology and encouraged Poussin to visit Italy. Poussin departs for Rome under the pretence of going to find his wife. Around 1633-1634, his reputation reaches Paris and his paintings are sent by Barberini to Cardinal Richelieu. Toward the end of his life, Poussin’s art underwent a further transformation as he diversified to depict landscapes and a group of profoundly pantheistic allegorical works that were ultimately concerned with the order and harmony of nature. Biography. In the spring of 1624 Poussin arrived in Rome, where—except for a stay in Paris during 1640–42—he was to remain for the rest of his life. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), one of the greatest French painters, rationally synthesized the diverse tendencies of French and Italian art. He spent his working life in Rome, except for a brief period when he served as First Painter to the King in France.