In 1975, after Spain agreed to decolonise the territory and cede its control to Morocco and Mauritania, a guerrilla war broke out between those powers and some of the local inhabitants. The Moroccan government has been implementing reforms to improve the quality of education and make research more responsive to socio-economic needs. In 1944, the Moroccan Cinematographic Center (CCM), the nation's film regulatory agency, was established. Hundreds took part in a trade union rally in Casablanca in May 2012. [144][145][146][147], The most recent estimates put the size of the Casablanca Jewish community at about 2,500,[148] and the Rabat and Marrakesh Jewish communities at about 100 members each. They also paid taxes and tribute to the new Muslim administration. The al-Qarawiyin University, founded by Fatima al-Fihri in the city of Fez in 859 as a madrasa,[189] is considered by some sources, including UNESCO, to be the "oldest university of the world". That party subsequently provided most of the leadership for the nationalist movement. It is the first phase of what is planned to eventually be a 1,500 kilometeres (930 mi) high-speed rail network in Morocco. Moroccan literature is written mostly in Arabic, Berber, Hebrew, and French. The most recognizably "Moroccan" architecture, however, is the traditional architecture that developed in the Islamic period (7th century and after) which dominates much of Morocco's documented history and its existing heritage. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Based on World Bank data, the nation's maternal mortality ratio fell by 67% between 1990 and 2010. Other important Moroccan authors include, Abdellatif Laabi, Abdelkrim Ghallab, Fouad Laroui, Mohammed Berrada and Leila Abouzeid. [183] Morocco made five attempts to host the FIFA World Cup but lost five times to United States, France, Germany, South Africa and Canada/Mexico/United States. Morocco was originally scheduled to host the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations,[182] but refused to host the tournament on the scheduled dates because of fears over the ebola outbreak on the continent. The Atlas Mountains are located mainly in the centre and the south of the country. Although they have continuously asked the government to let them back into the country, they have been refused. He announced that investment in science and technology would rise from US$620,000 in 2008 to US$8.5 million (69 million Moroccan dirhams) in 2009, in order to finance the refurbishment and construction of laboratories, training courses for researchers in financial management, a scholarship programme for postgraduate research and incentive measures for companies prepared to finance research, such as giving them access to scientific results that they could then use to develop new products. La CGEM est le représentant du secteur privé auprès des pouvoirs publics et des institutionnels. Mohammed Benjelloun Touimi, Abdelkbir Khatibi and Mohamed Kably, Bath, Richard (ed.) To the north, Morocco is bordered by the Strait of Gibraltar, where international shipping has unimpeded transit passage between the Atlantic and Mediterranean. Mass education in hygiene is implemented in primary education schools which are free for residents of Morocco. As a result, by the late 3rd century, direct Roman rule had become confined to a few coastal cities, such as Septum (Ceuta) in Mauretania Tingitana and Cherchell in Mauretania Caesariensis. Today, Morocco occupies two thirds of the territory, and efforts to resolve the dispute have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. [15] Morocco spans an area of 710,850 km2 (274,460 sq mi) and has a population of over 37 million. [143] The most commonly eaten red meat in Morocco is beef; lamb is preferred but is relatively expensive. The direct exposure to the North Atlantic Ocean, the proximity to mainland Europe and the long stretched Rif and Atlas mountains are the factors of the rather European-like climate in the northern half of the country. Très proche de l’ancien président Jacques Chirac, le roi Mohammed VI du Maroc a non seulement adressé des condoléances à Emmanuel Macron, mais aussi à Bernadette et à Claude Chirac. [157], According to a 2012 study by the Government of Spain, 98% of Moroccans spoke Moroccan Arabic, 63% spoke French, 43% Amazigh, 14% spoke English, and 10% spoke Spanish.[158]. It was founded by Salih I ibn Mansur in 710, as a client state to the Umayyad Caliphate. The proposal was encouraged by Moroccan allies such as the United States, France and Spain. The Moroccan government has launched a project to build a solar thermal energy power plant[117] and is also looking into the use of natural gas as a potential source of revenue for Morocco's government. Morocco has had strong ties to the West in order to gain economic and political benefits. [195] The Moroccan Plan was started by the Moroccan Minister of Health, Dr. El Houssaine Louardi, and Dr. Ala Alwan, WHO Regional Director for the Eastern Mediterranean Region, on 13 November 2013 in Rabat. The penalty can be from one month to five years, with fines ranging from $200 to $1,000. [123], The Moroccan Innovation Strategy was launched at the country's first National Innovation Summit in June 2009 by the Ministry of Industry, Commerce, Investment and the Digital Economy. The Spanish lost more than 13,000 soldiers at Annual in July–August 1921. Government repression of political dissent was widespread during Hassan II's leadership, until it dropped sharply in the mid-1990s. Le président de la Confédération nationale du tourisme (CNT), Abdellatif Kabbaj, a été élu, vendredi soir à Dakhla, personnalité du secteur touristique au titre de 2021, lors d'une cérémonie organisée par le média online spécialisé "Tourismo Post". Mohammed VI (Arabic: محمد السادس ‎; Berber languages: ⴰⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ ⵎⵓⵃⴰⵎⵎⴷ ⵙⴷⵉⵙ agllid muhammd sdis; born 21 August 1963) is the King of Morocco.He belongs to the … Kiosque360. [62] Avifauna are notably variant. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. [107], As of 2006[update], activity and adventure tourism in the Atlas and Rif Mountains are the fastest growth area in Moroccan tourism. En 1985, il obtient sa licence en droit à la faculté des sciences juridiques, écon… [151] English, while far behind French in terms of number of speakers, is the first foreign language of choice, since French is obligatory, among educated youth and professionals. [121] In addition to that, Morocco is a transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe.[122]. It also identified a number of strategic sectors, such as energy, with an emphasis on renewable energies such as photovoltaic, thermal solar energy, wind and biomass; as well as the water, nutrition and health sectors, the environment and geosciences. In 1631, Morocco was reunited by the Alaouite dynasty, who have been the ruling house of Morocco ever since. In the valleys, fertile soils and high precipitation allow for the growth of thick and lush forests. Interest groups that formed among these elements continually pressured France to increase its control over Morocco – a control which was also made necessary by the continuous wars among Moroccan tribes, part of which had taken sides with the French since the beginning of the conquest. Polisario claimed to have killed more than 5,000 Moroccan soldiers between 1982 and 1985. After Miknasa broke off relations with the Fatimids in 932, they were removed from power by the Maghrawa of Sijilmasa in 980. There have been substantial improvements in access to water supply, and to a lesser extent to sanitation, over the past fifteen years. [199] Moroccan youths experience a lower self-harm rate than the global index by an average of 4 encounters per year.[199]. The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, which started in the middle of the 7th century, was achieved by the Umayyad Caliphate early into the following century. Between that time and 1944, many foreign movies were shot in the country, especially in the Ouarzazate area. Morocco claims ownership of the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara (formerly known as Spanish Sahara), which it has designated its Southern Provinces. [64], The Barbary lion, hunted to extinction in the wild, was a subspecies native to Morocco and is a national emblem. [25] That name is still used today in some languages, including Persian, Urdu, and Punjabi. [124][126], On 20 May 2015, less than a year after its inception, the Higher Council for Education, Training and Scientific Research presented a report to the king offering a Vision for Education in Morocco 2015–2030. Moulay El Hassan du Maroc sur Paris Match ! There are also a number of flat breads and pulled unleavened pan-fried breads. The Alaouite dynasty, which rules Morocco to this day, seized power in 1631. Du 28 octobre 1956 au 16 avril 1958 Du 7 décembre 1955 au 25 octobre 1956. Internal security is generally effective, and acts of political violence are rare (with one exception, the 2003 Casablanca bombings which killed 45 people[79]). Chaabi ("popular") is a music consisting of numerous varieties which are descended from the multifarious forms of Moroccan folk music. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. Mourad Elâjoutti a été élu, mercredi, nouveau président du Club des Avocats au Maroc, à la suite d’une assemblée générale extraordinaire organisée par les membres du bureau exécutif du Club à “la maison d’avocat”. The Western Sahara War saw the Polisario Front, the Sahrawi rebel national liberation movement, battling both Morocco and Mauritania between 1976 and a ceasefire in 1991 that is still in effect. All those civilisations have affected the social structure of Morocco. Upon the death of Mohammed V, Hassan II became King of Morocco on 3 March 1961. Maroc. [81], Morocco was the only African state not to be a member of the African Union due to its unilateral withdrawal on 12 November 1984 over the admission of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic in 1982 by the African Union (then called Organisation of African Unity) as a full member without the organisation of a referendum of self-determination in the disputed territory of Western Sahara. Off the Atlantic coast the Canary Islands belong to Spain, whereas Madeira to the north is Portuguese. Le chef du gouvernement du Maroc préside le Conseil de gouvernement sous l'autorité du roi. In 2005, The government of Morocco approved two reforms to expand health insurance coverage. Président du Conseil et ministre des Affaires étrangères. Nevertheless, the Moroccan dynasties of Marinid (which ruled from the 13th into the 15th century) and Saadi (which ruled from the 15th into the 17th century) otherwise resisted foreign domination: Morocco was the only country in northwest African to escape occupation by the Ottoman Empire. In 1984, Morocco left the Organisation of African Unity in protest at the SADR's admission to the body. [18] (Berber had been the native language of Morocco before the Muslim conquest in the seventh century C.E. En 1962, le poste est transformé en celui de Premier ministre, qui dispose du pouvoir exécutif général alors que roi dispose d'un pouvoir d'attribution. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. Morocco (/məˈrɒkoʊ/ (listen); Arabic: المغرب‎, romanized: al-maḡrib, lit. It is served not only at mealtimes but all through the day, and it is especially a drink of hospitality, commonly served whenever there are guests. Most of the visitors to Morocco continue to be European, with French nationals making up almost 20% of all visitors. They are also developing desert tourism in competition with Tunisia. 16/02/2021 à 4:29 . Moroccan architecture refers to the architecture characteristic of Morocco throughout its history and up to modern times. Morocco is a member of the United Nations and belongs to the African Union (AU), Arab League, Arab Maghreb Union (UMA), Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), the Non-Aligned Movement and the Community of Sahel–Saharan States (CEN_SAD). Morocco rejoined the AU on 30 January 2017.[82][83]. [185] Like many other Maghreb nations, Moroccan rugby tended to look to Europe for inspiration, rather than to the rest of Africa. [156] A significant portion of northern Morocco receives Spanish media, television signal and radio airwaves, which reportedly facilitate competence in the language in the region. • Cet article est partiellement ou en totalité issu de l'article intitulé « Chef du gouvernement du Royaume du Maroc » (voir la liste des auteurs). Tourism is one of the most important sectors in Moroccan economy. [165][164][168][169], Although Moroccan Berber architecture is not strictly separate from the rest of Moroccan architecture, many structures and architectural styles are distinctively associated with traditionally Berber or Berber-dominated regions of Morocco such as the Atlas Mountains and the Sahara and pre-Sahara regions. On the Atlantic coast, where there are extensive plains, olives, citrus fruits, and wine grapes are grown, largely with water supplied by artesian wells. Despite the reforms made by Mohammed VI, demonstrators continued to call for deeper reforms. Since improving the quality of education goes hand in hand with promoting research and development, the report also recommended developing an integrated national innovation system which would be financed by gradually increasing the share of GDP devoted to research and development (R&D) from 0.73% of GDP in 2010 ‘to 1% in the short term, 1.5% by 2025 and 2% by 2030’. Political reforms in the 1990s resulted in the establishment of a bicameral legislature in 1997 and Morocco's first opposition-led government came to power in 1998. [71] It had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 6.74/10, ranking it 66th globally out of 172 countries. Most of the population lives to the north of these mountains, while to the south lies the Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony that was annexed by Morocco in 1975 (see Green March). Le Maroc participe pour la première fois au Salon Saudi Agriculture qui se tiendra à Riyad, du 15 au 18... 27 mai 201927 mai 2019. [114], In 2008, about 56% of Morocco's electricity supply was provided by coal. [196] Since 2014, spending on healthcare as part of the GDP has decreased. However, the Siege of Melilla against the Spanish ended in defeat in 1775. Après des émeutes en 1965, l'état d'exception est proclamé. Victorious Spain won a further enclave and an enlarged Ceuta in the settlement. [190] Morocco has also some of prestigious postgraduate schools, including: l'Institut National des Postes et Télécommunication (INPT), École Nationale Supérieure d'Électricité et de Mecanique (ENSEM), EMI, ISCAE, INSEA, National School of Mineral Industry, École Hassania des Travaux Publics, Les Écoles nationales de commerce et de gestion, École supérieure de technologie de Casablanca. [80] France and Spain remain the primary trade partners, as well as the primary creditors and foreign investors in Morocco. Morocco held its first general elections in 1963. [119] In 2004, according to the UN World Drugs Report, cultivation and transformation of cannabis represents 0.57% of the national GDP of Morocco in 2002. This article incorporates text from a free content work. [143] The number of the Moroccans who converted to Christianity (most of them secret worshippers) are estimated between 8,000 and 50,000. Other resorts in north Morocco are also very popular. Their presence in the city helped to boost the city's profile as a tourist destination. Morocco has an excellent road and rail infrastructure that links the major cities and tourist destinations with ports and cities with international airports. The industries that recorded the highest growth are tourism, telecoms, information technology, and textile. Hassan II règne en monarque absolu jusqu'en 1970, où une nouvelle Constitution voit le jour, avec un Premier ministre qui ne dispose que de peu de pouvoir face au pouvoir royal. [132], According to the 2014 Morocco population census, there were around 84,000 immigrants in the country. [55] Diplomatic relations with Algeria were restored in 1988. Bread in Morocco is principally from durum wheat semolina known as khobz. Rugby came to Morocco in the early 20th century, mainly by the French who occupied the country. According to the 2004 census, 2.19 million Moroccans spoke a foreign language other than French. The estimated literacy rate for the country in 2012 was 72%. Some bought up large amounts of the rich agricultural land, others organised the exploitation and modernisation of mines and harbours. The King is formally the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Also, the region extends from the Mediterranean in the south, home of the Wergha River, to the north. At higher elevations, the climate becomes alpine in character, and can sustain ski resorts. Livestock are raised and forests yield cork, cabinet wood, and building materials. In 2010, security forces stormed a protest camp in the Western Sahara, triggering violent demonstrations in the regional capital El Aaiún. The latest parliamentary elections were held on October 12, 2016. Morocco was facing aggression from Spain and the Ottoman Empire allies pressing westward. [61], Morocco has a wide range of biodiversity. Morocco is a Northern African country, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and the annexed Western Sahara. [68][69] This trade is unregulated and causing unknown reductions of wild populations of native Moroccan wildlife. These locations have excellent walking and trekking opportunities from late March to mid-November. [60] This code was used as the basis for Morocco's internet domain, .ma.[60]. The technoparks host start-ups and small and medium-sized enterprises specializing in information and communication technologies (ICTs), 'green' technologies (namely, environmentally friendly technologies) and cultural industries. Moroccan forces occupied the territory.[39]. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. The Moroccan government is heavily investing in tourism development, in 2010 the government launched its Vision 2020 which plans to make Morocco one of the top 20 tourist destinations in the world and to double the annual number of international arrivals to 20 million by 2020,[103] with the hope that tourism will then have risen to 20% of GDP. [191], Many efforts are made by countries around the world to address health issues and eradicate disease, Morocco included. [104] Morocco's relatively high number of tourists has been aided by its location—Morocco is close to Europe and attracts visitors to its beaches. [89][90], According to Human Rights Watch annual report 2016, Moroccan authorities restricted the rights to peaceful expression, association and assembly through several laws. Some 350,000 civilians were reported as being involved in the "Green March". At the 1984 Olympic Games, two Moroccans won gold medals in track and field. With the 2011 constitutional reforms, the King of Morocco retains less executive powers whereas those of the prime minister have been enlarged.[77][78]. Portuguese abandoned Mazagão, their last territory in Morocco, in 1769. [30] Mogador was established as a Phoenician colony as early as the 6th century BC. From the total foreign investments in Morocco, the European Union invests approximately 73.5%, whereas, the Arab world invests only 19.3%. According to medieval legend, Idris ibn Abdallah had fled to Morocco after the Abbasids' massacre of his tribe in Iraq. "Kahena, Queen of the Berbers: A Sketch of the Arab Invasion of Ifriqiya in the First Century of the Hijra". The Spanish government has stated that it is holding discussions with the Moroccan government about repatriating the migrant workers via a "humanitarian corridor," but it's unclear how long the process will take.[99]. In 1952, Orson Welles' Othello won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival under the Moroccan flag. The Almohad Caliph Abu Yakub had a great love for collecting books. The following decade saw much wrangling over a proposed referendum on the future of the territory but the deadlock was not broken. They were followed by the Wattasids. [98], As of 24 May 2020, hundreds of Moroccan migrant workers are trapped in Spain. Spanish territory in Northwest Africa neighbouring Morocco comprises five enclaves on the Mediterranean coast: Ceuta, Melilla, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, Peñón de Alhucemas, the Chafarinas islands, and the disputed islet Perejil. [179] The cuisine of Morocco is mainly a fusion of Moorish, European and Mediterranean cuisines. The name can also be translated as "kingdom of the evening". [186] In September 2006, UNESCO awarded Morocco amongst other countries such as Cuba, Pakistan, India and Turkey the "UNESCO 2006 Literacy Prize".[187]. The word "Morocco" is ultimately derived from the name of the city of Marrakesh, which was its capital under the Almoravid dynasty and the Almohad Caliphate. Forested areas cover about 12% of the country while arable land accounts for 18%. Orature (oral literature) is an integral part of Moroccan culture, be it in Moroccan Arabic or Berber. (2012-02-09)", "Morocco sets the goal of attracting 20 million tourists by 2020", "Yves Saint Laurent's Ashes Scattered In Marrakesh",,, "Tanger Med Port Authority – Containers Activity", "Morocco – electricity production from coal sources", "Natural Gas to Fuel Morocco. He is a cautious moderniser who has introduced some economic and social liberalisation.[56]. The Barbary macaque, a primate endemic to Morocco and Algeria, is also facing extinction due to offtake for trade[67] human interruption, urbanisation, wood and real estate expansion that diminish forested area – the macaque's habitat. The modern tourist industry capitalises on Morocco's ancient Berber, Roman and Islamic sites, and on its landscape and cultural history. Normalisation avec Israël, une décision solitaire du roi. [128][129] According to the CIA, 99% of residents are Arab-Berber. ", "Morocco: From Emigration Country to Africa's Migration Passage to Europe", "Survey Shows Faith in Decline in Morocco, in the Arab World", "Refworld – Morocco: General situation of Muslims who converted to Christianity, and specifically those who converted to Catholicism; their treatment by Islamists and the authorities, including state protection (2008–2011)", "International Religious Freedom Report for 2011 – Morocco", "Christian Converts in Morocco Fear Fatwa Calling for Their Execution", "Christians want marriages recognized in Morocco", "Pope Francis' Visit to Morocco Raises Hopes for Its Christians", Site institutionnel du Haut-Commissariat au Plan du Royaume du Maroc, "Enseñanza y uso de la lengua española en el Sáhara Occidental",, "Desert Blooms: The Contemporary Architecture of Morocco - Architizer Journal", "Modern Morocco: Building a New Vernacular", "Morocco to stage the 2015 African Nations Cup – ESPN Soccernet", "Africa Cup of Nations: Morocco will not host finals over Ebola fears", Baisse du taux d'analphabétisme au Maroc à 28%, "2006 UNESCO Literacy Prize winners announced", "CCIS Ifrane Morocco Summer Study Abroad Program", Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, "Health financing and insurance reform in Morocco", "Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births)", "Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births)", "WHO | Morocco takes a stride forward for mothers and children", "Current health expenditure (% of GDP) | Data", "Current health expenditure per capita, PPP (current international $) | Data", "Morocco | The Global Youth Wellbeing Index", Official website of the government of Morocco, Official bulletins of the government of Morocco, Official website of the Moroccan National Tourist Office, World Bank Summary Trade Statistics Morocco, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Union of Arab National Olympic Committees, Community of Sahel–Saharan States (CEN-SAD), Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie,, States and territories established in 1956, Arabic-speaking countries and territories, French-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from January 2013, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia extended-confirmed-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles containing Standard Moroccan Tamazight-language text, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from February 2013, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2006, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2014, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with multiple identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 April 2021, at 22:32. It is situated in the Tangiers free economic zone and serves as a logistics hub for Africa and the world. At 446,550 km2 (172,414 sq mi), Morocco excluding Western Sahara is the fifty-seventh largest country in the world. The Idrisids established Fes as their capital and Morocco became a centre of Muslim learning and a major regional power. In 2014, Morocco began the construction of the first high-speed railway system in Africa linking the cities of Tangiers and Casablanca. Le Chef du gouvernement, Méchouar Said Rabat, Maroc Tous droits réservés - Le Chef du Gouvernement 2019 ... Votre abonnement à la newsletter du site du Chef du Gouvernement Marocain a été activé. Following the March 1998 elections, a coalition government headed by opposition socialist leader Abderrahmane Youssoufi and composed largely of ministers drawn from opposition parties, was formed. [2] The predominantly Roman Catholic and Protestant foreign-resident Christian community consists of approximately 40,000 practising members. Infant mortality has improved significantly since 1960 when there were 144 deaths per 1,000 live births, in 2000, 42 per 1,000 live births, and now it is 20 per 1,000 live births. [48] Spain continued to operate its coastal protectorate. Chaabi was originally performed in markets, but is now found at any celebration or meeting. [citation needed], Culturally speaking, Morocco has always been successful in combining its Berber, Jewish and Arabic cultural heritage with external influences such as the French and the Spanish and, during the last decades, the Anglo-American lifestyles.[160][161][162]. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the human remains found at Iberomaurusian "Mechta-Afalou" burial sites and European Cro-Magnon remains.